|Just because you have used one 10,000 times does not mean that syringes with medication are without inherent risk. (Photo: qdsyringe.wordpress.com )|
The following article discusses the accidental death of a 38 year old Nebraska cattleman following the accidental injection of an animal antibiotic he planned to administer to a purebred Angus cow which was being held in a squeeze chute.
This accident occurred with a 38 year old highly experienced professional cattle rancher who was born and bred on a farm himself. He was in excellent health prior to this incident.
The cause of death was not stated to be anaphylaxis, although it makes me wonder. The rancher received a high dose of injected Micotil 300, a veterinary antibiotic which is also known as Tilmicosin phosphate.
This is a terrible tragedy, but as a person who fairly frequently gives immunizations and worming medication to horses, alpacas, dogs, rabbits, and rarely chickens and cats, I wanted to call this to everyone's attention and discuss some cautions.
An animal charged this cattleman resulting in the inadvertent and likely complete injection of an antibiotic designed to treat bovine respiratory diseases and pneumonia in a dose designed for an 800 pound animal. He immediately called an ambulance but died of cardiac arrest in a hospital within one hour of the incident. There is no known antidote for this particular medication if accidentally injected. This particular antibiotic is available via prescription from licensed veterinarians. (Many other veterinary antibiotics are available OTC)
This terrible tragedy brings some take away knowledge for the rest of us. Some important points especially for the survival community are:
1. Animal antibiotics are prepared and buffered for animal use, using preservatives and buffers which are approved for animal use and not necessarily human use. When someone tells you that injectable penicillin is "the same for humans" they may be entirely incorrect. Many times the buffering and inert agents including in injections for animals are cheaper products which are not approved for use in human beings because they are known to cause allergies in them. Using an animal antibiotic in a human could cause an anaphylactic, or life threatening allergic reaction, and a rapid death.
2. Drug combinations approved for animal use may not be used in human beings at all. For example, horses rarely develop anaphylactic reactions after immunizations and humans are much more likely to.
3. In an absolute, end of the world as we know it circumstance, an untrained person should consult a veterinarian, a physician, a dentist, or nurse practitioner before using a drug intended for animals in humans. This most especially applies to antibiotics which can strengthen and become a potent poison with age. This is particularly true of the tetracycline family of antibiotics, but if you aren't trained, how would you know which ones these are ? They aren't all called tetracycline !
4. If you are a person who is trained and experienced in giving injections to human beings, professionally, then do not assume that you are prepared to administer injectable drugs to a horse, a pig, a goat, an alpaca, or a cow.
Although directions and videos exist on the internet, there is no substitute for a veterinarian showing you the landmarks for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and other types of injections, and supervising your initial attempts. Ideally a veterinarian should clear you as safe to administer different types of injections ON EACH SPECIES. I don't think watching a Youtube video qualifies you to administer injections in animals, although I think it can be an excellent review if you haven't given a subcutaneous injection, for example, in an alpaca for awhile. An improperly administered injection attempt could result in injuries to you, including the possibility of being injured by the animal, stuck with a contaminated syringe or even the rare occurrence of an injection being administered to you in a scuffle.
5. Anyone administering injections to animals in a farm setting should have VETERINARY epinephrine and should know the correct dose. This used to be available OTC for animals, but too many human beings used it for themselves to save money, and they died doing so. As a result, you need to get veterinary epinephrine from your vet as it is now a prescription drug
6. I cannot overemphasize the importance of having enough assistance available when you are giving injections to animals. Having a second person with you can make injections for livestock a safer proposition, despite the fact that many times we believe our animals trust us and that we can do such procedures alone. The fact is, if you are rushed by an animal and injured, no one knows and no one can help you. As lovely as horses are, it is their nature to spook sometimes, and this is simply not always predictable.
7. Always use needle covers while transporting syringes from one place to another. This practice did not save this cattleman, but it does prevent a number of other possible injuries.
8. Try to administer animal injections when you are awake, calm, patient and not rushed. Hypoglycemia can cause hand shaking which can make an injection which would normally be easy for an RN, a more hazardous undertaking. Make sure you are not overdue for a meal when administering animal injections.
9. Just be careful out there. We don't need anyone else dying in the course of accidental injury while taking care on the ongoing medical needs of our livestock and beloved animals.
10. Keep an eye out for your parents or grandparents on farms. Their giving injections to livestock or horses might have been safe originally, but as they have aged, is it still ? It might make sense for them to take someone with them, or have a new family member trained.
11. Consider cross training the adults on your farm to give animal injections. The vet could as easily train two people at a time, almost as easily as one. It gives your family the option of using another person rather than the person who was initially trained, but who might be injured, tired or ill on the very day when some type of animal injection must be given.
Animals can be our livelihood, our friends, even part of the family and we owe it to them to be there for their lifespans if at all possible. Most of the time trained owners do an excellent job of administering injections of all types to their animals. For the animals sake, our family's and our own we need to make sure that we have been properly trained and are practicing the techniques that keep us and our animals as safe as possible.
Jane of Virginia
The following can be found at:
Nebraska FACE (Fatality Assessment Control Evaluation)
The Nebraska Workforce Development, Department of Labor’s Investigator concluded that to help prevent future similar occurrences:
- Veterinarians and animal health distributors, prior to releasing Micotil, should require the purchaser to sign a product information fact sheet that indicates Micotil can be fatal in humans, and that there is no antidote for this medication every time they purchase the product.
- Users of syringe-loaded medications should practice safe handling procedures during all phases of animal treatment.
- Veterinarians/Cattlemen, when practical, should consider using another less-hazardous antibiotic.
- All companies/agencies responsible for
the manufacture and/or approval of veterinary medicines and supplies
should continue to devise new products that will reduce unintentional
human exposure to accidental needlesticks/injections.
This report is generated and distributed solely for the purpose of providing current, relevant education to employers, their employees and the community on methods to prevent occupational fatalities and injuries.
|Photo #1. Looking south down walkway towards vet room door on right side. Phone was located directly inside door on right side mounted to the wall.|
|Photo #2. Squeeze chute where heifer was being held.|
|Photo #3. This is the walkway between the “vet room” on the left and cattle holding pens on the right. The squeeze chute that held the heifer is to the left through the opening just beyond the metal gate.|
|Photo #4. Metal gate on the left is hinged on the left side and swung against the pen to allow the heifer, once inoculated, to leave the squeeze chute and exit the barn going through the opening on the left, down the walkway and out a door on the side. The victim was passing between it and the metal pipe panel on the right side when the horned cow charged, knocking him to the ground. The pipe is 1¼ inch diameter and there is 8 inches in between pipes.|
The syringe and needle that the victim had been carrying was located at the incident site and was slightly bent, indicating that the victim had probably been injected with some of the antibiotic. This information was relayed to the emergency responders and hospital personnel and they contacted a poison control center. When the ambulance arrived at the hospital, the victim was told by the treating physician that there was no known antidote that could help him. The victim knew his family had arrived at the hospital and wanted to talk with them, but collapsed and died while getting off the emergency room table.
Later that evening the victim’s father returned to the barn to check on the status of the heifer in the squeeze chute. As he passed between the swing gate and pen fence where the incident occurred, the horned cow again charged the fence panel. After releasing the heifer from the squeeze chute he again passed in the opposite direction between the swing gate and pen, causing the cow to charge him a second time. It can be concluded with reasonable certainty that this charging cow was responsible for knocking the victim down.
A request was made by the immediate family to donate organs and/or body tissue. That request was denied due to the possibility that Micotil was present in the victim.
Cattle: The heifer in the squeeze chute was a purebred red angus, weighing approximately 800 to 840 lbs. The horned cow in the adjoining pen was a longhorn crossbreed weighing between 800-1000 lbs. The horns were approximately 12 inches in length and stuck straight out, unlike the side-to-side horns of most longhorn cattle. It could not be determined if only the force of impact knocked the victim down, or if a portion of the cow’s head and/or horns struck him and/or the syringe. Family members stated that there appeared to be impact marks of some type on the victim’s coveralls near the possible injection site.
Syringe/needle: The syringe in use that day was a 6 inch long, 12 cc Monoject 200™ with an 18 gauge, 1 ½” long needle (identical to that seen in photo #5). It could not be determined whether the protective cap was on when the victim left the “vet room” and/or when he was struck. Although intended for single use, it is common practice amongst cattlemen to use this type of needle for several injections. The investigator was not able to determine if the incident syringe/needle was new or had been used before. The victim was right handed and was believed to be carrying the syringe/needle in that hand, which was the side of his body that was impacted. It is believed, based on the weight of the heifer and the Micotil 300® dosing instructions that the syringe would have contained between 10-12 ccs. After the incident the syringe contained approximately 1.5 cc’s. It was not medically determined how much was injected into the victim. The needle, either during the impact from the cow or when the victim fell to the ground, stuck the victim in the right side groin area. Examination of the insulated coveralls by hospital personnel showed an area where it is believed the needle penetrated through the outside layer, which would indicate it was being carried in his hand. Family members stated that examination of the incident needle and the luer-tip of the syringe showed that both bad been drastically bent, presumably from the impact and accidental injection.
|Photo #5. The syringe in use that day was a 6 inch long (with protective cap installed) 12cc Monoject 200™ with an 18 gauge 1½ inch long needle. With the cap on the needle tip is approximately ¼ inch from the end.|
Antibiotic: ²Micotil, which contains Tilmicosin phosphate, is used to control respiratory disease in cattle (bovine respiratory disease), more commonly called Dairy Calf Pneumonia (DCP), a very expensive and difficult-to-treat problem. It was designed to provide a single-injection therapy intended to reduce stress on the animal, thus requiring less labor since it is a low-volume dose used at a single injection site. It reaches effective concentration levels in lung tissue in two hours and maintains effective concentration levels throughout the respiratory tract for three to four days. It works with the animal’s own immune system to destroy pathogenic bacteria.
Micotil is an antibiotic that originally offered a lower cost per treatment than many other antibiotics for this indication available at the time. It was first introduced in Canada in 1990, then in the United States in 1992 and immediately gained wide acceptance. It is currently being marketed in several countries throughout the world.
A dosage of 1.5 mL per 100 lbs. of animal weight is recommended. It is to be injected subcutaneously (beneath the skin) in cattle. It can not be administered intravenously in cattle, as that proves fatal. The manufacturer states on all product literature that it is not to be used with automatically powered syringes, presumably due to its hazards to humans or possibly inefficiency to administer subcutaneous injections via this method. Most cattlemen use some form of disposable plastic syringe for injection.
Elanco is the only producer of Micotil. It is sold, through a distributor, only to licensed veterinarians. The victim had used Micotil® for several years. It could not be determined where or when he purchased the antibiotic in use during the incident.
Verbal surveys conducted with the customers indicated that most had originally been told of the dangers of Micotil, but had become complacent until this incident. Several admitted that although they purchased the medication, they were not the actual person that injected it, leaving that task to a hired employee. Most said that they had not discussed specific Micotil dangers with their employees, but had trained them on proper injection techniques.
Elanco does provide “prescription pads” specific to Micotil to all its customers (see photos 6 & 7). This sheet is intended for use by the issuing veterinarian or animal health distributor each and every time they distribute Micotil to a user. The front side contains general information about the user, injection dosage, suggested injection sites, comments by the issuing veterinarian and a line for the veterinarian’s signature. There is no signature line for the purchaser. A completed copy should be placed in the purchaser’s file, and a copy sent with the purchaser.
Suggestion: Add a signature line for the “purchaser”. Their signature will ensure that the information was presented to them and that they had opportunity to ask questions from the issuing veterinarian or animal health distributor.
|Photo #6. Front of
prescription pad. The shaded areas are light blue on original form. The
actual paper size is 5 ½ inches wide by 8 ½ inches long.
|Photo #7. Back side of prescription pad. Note the Human Warnings are also in Spanish.|
Recommendation #2: Users of syringe-loaded medications should practice safe handling procedures during all phases of animal treatment.
Discussion: The victim had used this product many times before. Even though his cattle had the reputation of being extremely gentle and easy to work with, he still placed the heifer in the squeeze chute to medicate her, for both his and the animal’s safety.
Syringes should always be transported, whether full or empty, with the protective needle cap on. The investigator could not determine if the syringe was capped or not. The hard plastic needle cap, although extremely rigid and generally tight fitting, may not have been able to withstand the force of a direct blow from the horned cow if it were to contact the needle directly, or from an individual falling directly on the needle tip. The tip of the needle, when fully capped on this model, is approximately ¼ inch from the protective cap end.
Recommendation #3: Veterinarians/Cattlemen, when practical, should consider using another less-hazardous antibiotic.
Discussion: According to the Federal Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine and their Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation (ONADE), Micotil is not the only FDA approved veterinary drug without an antidote, but there is no published list of those medications.
The FDA does not require an antidote for any new animal drug that is approved. In order to be approved, veterinary drugs must be safe for the animal, for humans who consume products from the animal, and for the environment. In addition, they must be effective for the animal. Also FDA regulations require that adequate directions can be prescribed for the safe administration of the product, i.e. the establishment of a veterinarian/client/patient relationship.
The end-user can purchase Micotil from either a state licensed/registered veterinarian or an animal health distributor. In either situation, the end-user must have a valid prescription from a veterinarian before obtaining the product.
While an antidote is one possible solution to an accidental poisoning, it is not necessary to make the administration of the product safe. The FDA ensures that products are labeled properly so accidental injection and the need for an antidote do not happen if the user reads and understands the label and adheres to its recommendations. Micotil does carry warning labeling on the source bottle and also a warning sheet inside the container’s box that states in part “Not for human use. Injection of this drug in humans may be fatal…”. However, the warning sheet does not warn that there is no antidote to this medication.
For most drug development companies, during the discovery and testing phases, drugs are selected that ideally have therapeutic/toxicity safety margins built into the molecule, so that when they’re developed the toxicology is at non-lethal therapeutic doses or concentrations that hopefully human or animals will never experience. Although there have been other fatal cases in the United States associated with Micotil, all but two have all been ruled as “suicides” by law enforcement personnel. The remaining two do not have an absolute explanation.
The minimum amount of this medication needed to cause a fatality when injected into a human is not known. Interviews conducted with both veterinarians and users indicated they believed any amount greater than 6 ccs could prove fatal, depending upon the route of exposure or injection, e.g. subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, oral, etc. ¹This may be based on a case of unintentional human exposure that occurred several years ago in Nebraska . The subject, a 28-year-old male, using a 12-cc syringe with Micotil, was attempting to inject a steer but inadvertently injected less than half of the contents into his left forearm. He felt no ill effects until approximately five hours later when he developed severe chest pain and was transported to a nearby hospital where he was intubated. He was extubated approximately 10 hours after arrival and remained free of chest pains for the 3 days of hospitalization and was discharged.
Several veterinarians queried during the investigation indicated they personally did not want to use this product due to the possible fatal human consequences. They all indicated that needle sticks in their business is unfortunately all too common, and to use a substance that may have no treatment depending on the amount and route injected or ingested was not their choice. They felt that there were other drugs on the market that would produce the same results and were safer to work with. Many indicated that since this incident they have received numerous calls from not only their customers about Micotil, but also from concerned family members that were looking for alternative medications.
Cattlemen like the drug because of its lower per dose volume, cost per treatment and reaction time. The majority of the current Micotil users that the investigator spoke with stated they would probably continue to use it, but be a little more cautious. Those that had employees had already discussed proper injection procedures with them after becoming aware of this incident.
Recommendation #4: All companies/agencies responsible for the manufacture and/or approval of veterinary medicines and supplies should continue to devise new products that will reduce unintentional human exposure to accidental needle sticks/injections.
Discussion: Interviews conducted during the investigation showed that users of disposable plastic syringes received needle sticks from a variety of situations. The preferred combination of having both medication and receiving animal next to each other, thereby reducing user exposure time, very seldom happens in the rural environment.
Elanco has developed a plastic shield for the 250-ml Micotil bottle that provides more protection to the user’s hand holding the bottle when inserting the needle. At this time it is only available for 250-ml bottles.
They also developed an Injection Administration Kit for hand operated syringes that allows multiple dosing, thereby reducing the number of needle/skin exposures. A center spike attached to tubing is inserted into the bottle, which is hung above the user.
The victim in this incident had only a few feet to travel from his vet room to the squeeze chute, but other users tell of traveling many miles with the loaded syringes to treat cattle. Unfortunately the majority of the time they place these syringes in bib overall pockets, toss them on the dash of the pickup, lay them on the vehicle’s seat next to them or place them in horse and ATV saddle bags.
An attempt was made to locate/identify some form of carrying case for these needles that would encapsulate the entire syringe/needle during transport, but none were identified by the investigator at the time of this report.
Suggestion: A device as simple as, and similar to, a hard plastic eyeglass case that would hold these plastic syringes with capped needles would further separate the user from possible accidental injection or exposure.