|Just because you have used one 10,000 times does not mean that syringes with medication are without inherent risk. (Photo: qdsyringe.wordpress.com )|
The following article discusses the accidental death of a 38 year old Nebraska cattleman following the accidental injection of an animal antibiotic he planned to administer to a purebred Angus cow which was being held in a squeeze chute.
This accident occurred with a 38 year old highly experienced professional cattle rancher who was born and bred on a farm himself. He was in excellent health prior to this incident.
The cause of death was not stated to be anaphylaxis, although it makes me wonder. The rancher received a high dose of injected Micotil 300, a veterinary antibiotic which is also known as Tilmicosin phosphate.
This is a terrible tragedy, but as a person who fairly frequently gives immunizations and worming medication to horses, alpacas, dogs, rabbits, and rarely chickens and cats, I wanted to call this to everyone's attention and discuss some cautions.
An animal charged this cattleman resulting in the inadvertent and likely complete injection of an antibiotic designed to treat bovine respiratory diseases and pneumonia in a dose designed for an 800 pound animal. He immediately called an ambulance but died of cardiac arrest in a hospital within one hour of the incident. There is no known antidote for this particular medication if accidentally injected. This particular antibiotic is available via prescription from licensed veterinarians. (Many other veterinary antibiotics are available OTC)
This terrible tragedy brings some take away knowledge for the rest of us. Some important points especially for the survival community are:
1. Animal antibiotics are prepared and buffered for animal use, using preservatives and buffers which are approved for animal use and not necessarily human use. When someone tells you that injectable penicillin is "the same for humans" they may be entirely incorrect. Many times the buffering and inert agents including in injections for animals are cheaper products which are not approved for use in human beings because they are known to cause allergies in them. Using an animal antibiotic in a human could cause an anaphylactic, or life threatening allergic reaction, and a rapid death.
2. Drug combinations approved for animal use may not be used in human beings at all. For example, horses rarely develop anaphylactic reactions after immunizations and humans are much more likely to.
3. In an absolute, end of the world as we know it circumstance, an untrained person should consult a veterinarian, a physician, a dentist, or nurse practitioner before using a drug intended for animals in humans. This most especially applies to antibiotics which can strengthen and become a potent poison with age. This is particularly true of the tetracycline family of antibiotics, but if you aren't trained, how would you know which ones these are ? They aren't all called tetracycline !
4. If you are a person who is trained and experienced in giving injections to human beings, professionally, then do not assume that you are prepared to administer injectable drugs to a horse, a pig, a goat, an alpaca, or a cow.
Although directions and videos exist on the internet, there is no substitute for a veterinarian showing you the landmarks for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and other types of injections, and supervising your initial attempts. Ideally a veterinarian should clear you as safe to administer different types of injections ON EACH SPECIES. I don't think watching a Youtube video qualifies you to administer injections in animals, although I think it can be an excellent review if you haven't given a subcutaneous injection, for example, in an alpaca for awhile. An improperly administered injection attempt could result in injuries to you, including the possibility of being injured by the animal, stuck with a contaminated syringe or even the rare occurrence of an injection being administered to you in a scuffle.
5. Anyone administering injections to animals in a farm setting should have VETERINARY epinephrine and should know the correct dose. This used to be available OTC for animals, but too many human beings used it for themselves to save money, and they died doing so. As a result, you need to get veterinary epinephrine from your vet as it is now a prescription drug
6. I cannot overemphasize the importance of having enough assistance available when you are giving injections to animals. Having a second person with you can make injections for livestock a safer proposition, despite the fact that many times we believe our animals trust us and that we can do such procedures alone. The fact is, if you are rushed by an animal and injured, no one knows and no one can help you. As lovely as horses are, it is their nature to spook sometimes, and this is simply not always predictable.
7. Always use needle covers while transporting syringes from one place to another. This practice did not save this cattleman, but it does prevent a number of other possible injuries.
8. Try to administer animal injections when you are awake, calm, patient and not rushed. Hypoglycemia can cause hand shaking which can make an injection which would normally be easy for an RN, a more hazardous undertaking. Make sure you are not overdue for a meal when administering animal injections.
9. Just be careful out there. We don't need anyone else dying in the course of accidental injury while taking care on the ongoing medical needs of our livestock and beloved animals.
10. Keep an eye out for your parents or grandparents on farms. Their giving injections to livestock or horses might have been safe originally, but as they have aged, is it still ? It might make sense for them to take someone with them, or have a new family member trained.
11. Consider cross training the adults on your farm to give animal injections. The vet could as easily train two people at a time, almost as easily as one. It gives your family the option of using another person rather than the person who was initially trained, but who might be injured, tired or ill on the very day when some type of animal injection must be given.
Animals can be our livelihood, our friends, even part of the family and we owe it to them to be there for their lifespans if at all possible. Most of the time trained owners do an excellent job of administering injections of all types to their animals. For the animals sake, our family's and our own we need to make sure that we have been properly trained and are practicing the techniques that keep us and our animals as safe as possible.
Jane of Virginia
The following can be found at:
Nebraska FACE (Fatality Assessment Control Evaluation)
A 38-year-old cattleman died as a
result of an accidental injection of an animal antibiotic known as
Micotil which has no known antidote. On March 8, 2003, the victim was
preparing to vaccinate a heifer inside a barn. He was carrying a 12cc
plastic disposable syringe in his right hand when a cow that was in an
adjacent pen charged him, striking the fence between the two. The victim
was knocked to the ground. Either when struck or from the fall, he was
injected with an unknown amount of the antibiotic. He immediately began
to feel dizzy and nauseous. He was able to return to the “vet room”
inside the barn and call his wife who was nearby in the house. An
ambulance was called and the victim was rushed to a nearby hospital
where he died less than an hour later.
The Nebraska Workforce Development, Department of Labor’s Investigator
concluded that to help prevent future similar occurrences:
- Veterinarians and animal health
distributors, prior to releasing Micotil, should require the purchaser
to sign a product information fact sheet that indicates Micotil can be
fatal in humans, and that there is no antidote for this medication every
time they purchase the product.
- Users of syringe-loaded medications should practice safe handling procedures during all phases of animal treatment.
- Veterinarians/Cattlemen, when practical, should consider using another less-hazardous antibiotic.
- All companies/agencies responsible for
the manufacture and/or approval of veterinary medicines and supplies
should continue to devise new products that will reduce unintentional
human exposure to accidental needlesticks/injections.
The goal of the Fatality Assessment and Control
Evaluation (FACE) workplace investigation is to prevent future
work-related deaths or injuries, by a study of the working environment,
the worker, the task the worker was performing, the tools the worker was
using, and the role of management in controlling how these factors
This report is generated and distributed solely
for the purpose of providing current, relevant education to employers,
their employees and the community on methods to prevent occupational
fatalities and injuries.
On March 8, 2003 at approximately 7
p.m. a 38-year-old cattleman died within an hour as a result of an
accidental injection of the bovine antibiotic Micotil 300®. The Nebraska
Department of Labor was notified of the incident on March 9, 2003
through the local news media. The Nebraska FACE investigator met with
the victim’s family on June 10th & 12th. Site
visits were conducted both days. The local emergency response personnel
that responded to the incident site were interviewed on June 12th. A telephone conference was held with the drugs’ manufacturer, ELANCO on June 16th . and with the Federal Drug Administrations’ (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine on June 19th.
The victim was a self-employed cattleman/farmer. He
was born and raised on a farm and had been raising cattle virtually his
entire life. At the time of the incident the farm did not employ any
other personnel. The victim was in good physical shape.
On the day of the incident the
victim was working alone inside the barn. He had brought a young heifer
(young cow that has not previously calved) into the barn and placed her
in a squeeze chute (see photo #2
His intent was to inject her with the antibiotic Micotil 300®. He went
to the “vet room”, located inside the barn where supplies and medicine
were kept (see photo #1
He probably withdrew between 10-12 ccs of the antibiotic (normal dosage
requirement for this sized animal) from a 100 ml bottle, into a plastic
disposable syringe and left the room with the syringe believed to be
carried in his right hand. As he walked down an alleyway towards the
squeeze chute (see photo #3
he had to pass by a metal swing gate that was post-attached via hinges,
enclosing a fenced-in pen that ran parallel along the east side (right
side of victim) of the barn. This pen contained a “horned cow” that was
ready to calve at any time. As the victim started to open the gate and
walk through to the squeeze chute, the horned cow charged, striking the
fence panel and/or the victim with enough force to knock him to the
ground (see photo #4
As he tried to regain his balance, he began feeling dizzy. He was able
to make it approximately 25 feet back down the alleyway to the “vet
room” and use a phone located inside the door to call his wife in the
nearby house. She found him extremely dizzy and becoming nauseous. 911
was called along with a neighbor. The local emergency rescue squad
(EMTs) responded from a nearby town within a few minutes and immediately
transported the victim to a nearby hospital. En route they were met by
an ambulance containing paramedics that could provide more care if
|Photo #1. Looking south
down walkway towards vet room door on right side. Phone was located
directly inside door on right side mounted to the wall.
|Photo #2. Squeeze chute where heifer was being held.
|Photo #3. This is the
walkway between the “vet room” on the left and cattle holding pens on
the right. The squeeze chute that held the heifer is to the left through
the opening just beyond the metal gate.
|Photo #4. Metal gate on
the left is hinged on the left side and swung against the pen to allow
the heifer, once inoculated, to leave the squeeze chute and exit the
barn going through the opening on the left, down the walkway and out a
door on the side. The victim was passing between it and the metal pipe
panel on the right side when the horned cow charged, knocking him to the
ground. The pipe is 1¼ inch diameter and there is 8 inches in between
Information concerning medications and procedures
administered at the incident site and during ambulance transport were
not revealed to the investigator due to doctor/patient confidentiality
guidelines of both agencies involved.
The syringe and needle that the victim had been
carrying was located at the incident site and was slightly bent,
indicating that the victim had probably been injected with some of the
antibiotic. This information was relayed to the emergency responders and
hospital personnel and they contacted a poison control center. When the
ambulance arrived at the hospital, the victim was told by the treating
physician that there was no known antidote that could help him. The
victim knew his family had arrived at the hospital and wanted to talk
with them, but collapsed and died while getting off the emergency room
Later that evening the victim’s father returned to
the barn to check on the status of the heifer in the squeeze chute. As
he passed between the swing gate and pen fence where the incident
occurred, the horned cow again charged the fence panel. After releasing
the heifer from the squeeze chute he again passed in the opposite
direction between the swing gate and pen, causing the cow to charge him a
second time. It can be concluded with reasonable certainty that this
charging cow was responsible for knocking the victim down.
A request was made by the immediate family to
donate organs and/or body tissue. That request was denied due to the
possibility that Micotil was present in the victim.
: The heifer in the squeeze chute was a
purebred red angus, weighing approximately 800 to 840 lbs. The horned
cow in the adjoining pen was a longhorn crossbreed weighing between
800-1000 lbs. The horns were approximately 12 inches in length and stuck
straight out, unlike the side-to-side horns of most longhorn cattle. It
could not be determined if only the force of impact knocked the victim
down, or if a portion of the cow’s head and/or horns struck him and/or
the syringe. Family members stated that there appeared to be impact
marks of some type on the victim’s coveralls near the possible injection
: The syringe in use that day
was a 6 inch long, 12 cc Monoject 200™ with an 18 gauge, 1 ½” long
needle (identical to that seen in photo #5
It could not be determined whether the protective cap was on when the
victim left the “vet room” and/or when he was struck. Although intended
for single use, it is common practice amongst cattlemen to use this type
of needle for several injections. The investigator was not able to
determine if the incident syringe/needle was new or had been used
before. The victim was right handed and was believed to be carrying the
syringe/needle in that hand, which was the side of his body that was
impacted. It is believed, based on the weight of the heifer and the
Micotil 300® dosing instructions that the syringe would have contained
between 10-12 ccs. After the incident the syringe contained
approximately 1.5 cc’s. It was not medically determined how much was
injected into the victim. The needle, either during the impact from the
cow or when the victim fell to the ground, stuck the victim in the right
side groin area. Examination of the insulated coveralls by hospital
personnel showed an area where it is believed the needle penetrated
through the outside layer, which would indicate it was being carried in
his hand. Family members stated that examination of the incident needle
and the luer-tip of the syringe showed that both bad been drastically
bent, presumably from the impact and accidental injection.
|Photo #5. The syringe in use that day
was a 6 inch long (with protective cap installed) 12cc Monoject 200™
with an 18 gauge 1½ inch long needle. With the cap on the needle tip is
approximately ¼ inch from the end.
Note: The investigator did not have access to either the incident clothing or syringe.
: ²Micotil, which contains
Tilmicosin phosphate, is used to control respiratory disease in cattle
(bovine respiratory disease), more commonly called Dairy Calf Pneumonia
(DCP), a very expensive and difficult-to-treat problem. It was designed
to provide a single-injection therapy intended to reduce stress on the
animal, thus requiring less labor since it is a low-volume dose used at a
single injection site. It reaches effective concentration levels in
lung tissue in two hours and maintains effective concentration levels
throughout the respiratory tract for three to four days. It works with
the animal’s own immune system to destroy pathogenic bacteria.
Micotil is an antibiotic that originally offered a
lower cost per treatment than many other antibiotics for this indication
available at the time. It was first introduced in Canada in 1990, then
in the United States in 1992 and immediately gained wide acceptance. It
is currently being marketed in several countries throughout the world.
A dosage of 1.5 mL per 100 lbs. of animal weight is
recommended. It is to be injected subcutaneously (beneath the skin) in
cattle. It can not be administered intravenously in cattle, as that
proves fatal. The manufacturer states on all product literature that it
is not to be used with automatically powered syringes, presumably due to
its hazards to humans or possibly inefficiency to administer
subcutaneous injections via this method. Most cattlemen use some form of
disposable plastic syringe for injection.
Elanco is the only producer of Micotil. It is sold,
through a distributor, only to licensed veterinarians. The victim had
used Micotil® for several years. It could not be determined where or
when he purchased the antibiotic in use during the incident.
According to the death certificate,
the cause of death was: Respiratory failure as a consequence of cardiac
arrest as a consequence of lethal injection.
Veterinarians and animal health distributors, prior to releasing
Micotil, should require the purchaser to sign an information fact sheet
that indicates Micotil can be fatal in humans and that there is no
antidote for this medication, every time they purchase the product.
Discussion: Informal telephone and on-site verbal
surveys with veterinarians were conducted throughout this investigation.
They have shown that some veterinarians always warn their customers,
either verbally or through manufacturer’s supplied literature, every
time they purchase Micotil. Others have stated that if there has been a
long-term relationship between them and the user, they do not always
warn them of the possible dangers, assuming they remember.
Verbal surveys conducted with the customers
indicated that most had originally been told of the dangers of Micotil,
but had become complacent until this incident. Several admitted that
although they purchased the medication, they were not the actual person
that injected it, leaving that task to a hired employee. Most said that
they had not discussed specific Micotil dangers with their employees,
but had trained them on proper injection techniques.
Elanco does provide “prescription pads” specific to Micotil to all its customers (see photos 6 & 7
This sheet is intended for use by the issuing veterinarian or animal
health distributor each and every time they distribute Micotil to a
user. The front side contains general information about the user,
injection dosage, suggested injection sites, comments by the issuing
veterinarian and a line for the veterinarian’s signature. There is no signature line for the purchaser
. A completed copy should be placed in the purchaser’s file, and a copy sent with the purchaser.
: Add a signature line for the
“purchaser”. Their signature will ensure that the information was
presented to them and that they had opportunity to ask questions from
the issuing veterinarian or animal health distributor.
Recommendation #2: Users of syringe-loaded
medications should practice safe handling procedures during all phases
of animal treatment.
|Photo #6. Front of
prescription pad. The shaded areas are light blue on original form. The
actual paper size is 5 ½ inches wide by 8 ½ inches long.
|Photo #7. Back side of prescription pad. Note the Human Warnings are also in Spanish.
Discussion: The victim had used this product many
times before. Even though his cattle had the reputation of being
extremely gentle and easy to work with, he still placed the heifer in
the squeeze chute to medicate her, for both his and the animal’s safety.
Syringes should always be transported, whether full
or empty, with the protective needle cap on. The investigator could not
determine if the syringe was capped or not. The hard plastic needle
cap, although extremely rigid and generally tight fitting, may not have
been able to withstand the force of a direct blow from the horned cow if
it were to contact the needle directly, or from an individual falling
directly on the needle tip. The tip of the needle, when fully capped on
this model, is approximately ¼ inch from the protective cap end.
Recommendation #3: Veterinarians/Cattlemen, when practical, should consider using another less-hazardous antibiotic.
Discussion: According to the Federal Drug
Administration’s (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine and their Office
of New Animal Drug Evaluation (ONADE), Micotil is not the only FDA
approved veterinary drug without an antidote, but there is no published
list of those medications.
The FDA does not require an antidote for any new
animal drug that is approved. In order to be approved, veterinary drugs
must be safe for the animal, for humans who consume products from the
animal, and for the environment. In addition, they must be effective for
the animal. Also FDA regulations require that adequate directions can
be prescribed for the safe administration of the product, i.e. the
establishment of a veterinarian/client/patient relationship.
The end-user can purchase Micotil from either a
state licensed/registered veterinarian or an animal health distributor.
In either situation, the end-user must have a valid prescription from a
veterinarian before obtaining the product.
While an antidote is one possible solution to an
accidental poisoning, it is not necessary to make the administration of
the product safe. The FDA ensures that products are labeled properly so
accidental injection and the need for an antidote do not happen if the
user reads and understands the label and adheres to its recommendations.
Micotil does carry warning labeling on the source bottle and also a
warning sheet inside the container’s box that states in part “Not for
human use. Injection of this drug in humans may be fatal…”. However, the
warning sheet does not warn that there is no antidote to this
For most drug development companies, during the
discovery and testing phases, drugs are selected that ideally have
therapeutic/toxicity safety margins built into the molecule, so that
when they’re developed the toxicology is at non-lethal therapeutic doses
or concentrations that hopefully human or animals will never
experience. Although there have been other fatal cases in the United
States associated with Micotil, all but two have all been ruled as
“suicides” by law enforcement personnel. The remaining two do not have
an absolute explanation.
The minimum amount of this medication needed to
cause a fatality when injected into a human is not known. Interviews
conducted with both veterinarians and users indicated they believed any
amount greater than 6 ccs could prove fatal, depending upon the route of
exposure or injection, e.g. subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous,
oral, etc. ¹This may be based on a case of unintentional human exposure
that occurred several years ago in Nebraska . The subject, a 28-year-old
male, using a 12-cc syringe with Micotil, was attempting to inject a
steer but inadvertently injected less than half of the contents into his
left forearm. He felt no ill effects until approximately five hours
later when he developed severe chest pain and was transported to a
nearby hospital where he was intubated. He was extubated approximately
10 hours after arrival and remained free of chest pains for the 3 days
of hospitalization and was discharged.
Several veterinarians queried during the
investigation indicated they personally did not want to use this product
due to the possible fatal human consequences. They all indicated that
needle sticks in their business is unfortunately all too common, and to
use a substance that may have no treatment depending on the amount and
route injected or ingested was not their choice. They felt that there
were other drugs on the market that would produce the same results and
were safer to work with. Many indicated that since this incident they
have received numerous calls from not only their customers about
Micotil, but also from concerned family members that were looking for
Cattlemen like the drug because of its lower per
dose volume, cost per treatment and reaction time. The majority of the
current Micotil users that the investigator spoke with stated they would
probably continue to use it, but be a little more cautious. Those that
had employees had already discussed proper injection procedures with
them after becoming aware of this incident.
Recommendation #4: All companies/agencies
responsible for the manufacture and/or approval of veterinary medicines
and supplies should continue to devise new products that will reduce
unintentional human exposure to accidental needle sticks/injections.
Discussion: Interviews conducted during the
investigation showed that users of disposable plastic syringes received
needle sticks from a variety of situations. The preferred combination of
having both medication and receiving animal next to each other, thereby
reducing user exposure time, very seldom happens in the rural
Elanco has developed a plastic shield for the
250-ml Micotil bottle that provides more protection to the user’s hand
holding the bottle when inserting the needle. At this time it is only
available for 250-ml bottles.
They also developed an Injection Administration Kit
for hand operated syringes that allows multiple dosing, thereby
reducing the number of needle/skin exposures. A center spike attached to
tubing is inserted into the bottle, which is hung above the user.
The victim in this incident had only a few feet to
travel from his vet room to the squeeze chute, but other users tell of
traveling many miles with the loaded syringes to treat cattle.
Unfortunately the majority of the time they place these syringes in bib
overall pockets, toss them on the dash of the pickup, lay them on the
vehicle’s seat next to them or place them in horse and ATV saddle bags.
An attempt was made to locate/identify some form of
carrying case for these needles that would encapsulate the entire
syringe/needle during transport, but none were identified by the
investigator at the time of this report.
: A device as simple as, and
similar to, a hard plastic eyeglass case that would hold these plastic
syringes with capped needles would further separate the user from
possible accidental injection or exposure.